Sunday, July 22, 2018

PLSI volume on English and other international languages

Volume 37 (of the projected 50 volumes) of the People's Linguistic Survey of India (PLSI) is being launched in Hyderabad on 27 July 2018. This volume is titled English and Other International Languages.

As the publisher's blurb says, the book "discusses the status of English and other foreign languages which continue to have a presence in India. While Section I discusses the complex progression of English in the Indian linguistic scene and its increasing acceptance among the people here, Section II describes the status and development of eight other international languages in use in India. The volume also observes how India’s engagement with foreign cultures has enriched the multilingual mosaic of the country."

The other eight languages are: Chinese, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish in India. This post deals only with the section on English. The 20 chapters include my essay, "English as the Medium of Instruction at School" (PDF). The contents of the volume are listed here.

The 27 July launch will feature both the series editor Ganesh Devy, as well as the volume editor T. Vijay Kumar.

The volume also has a useful set of appendices. Here is the list with links to where they can be found on the net:

I. Mother English (1854) -- a poem by Savitribai Phule

II. Address, dated 11th December 1823, from Raja Rammohan Roy to Lord Amherst

III. Minute on Indian education by the Hon’ble T. B. Macaulay, dated 2nd February 1835

IV. Gandhi on the English Language - 5 excerpts from his writings. Two books that bring together Gandhi's writings on education are Towards New Education (ed. Bharatan Kumarappa, 1953) and Evil Wrought by the English Medium (ed. K. R. Prabhu, 1958)

V. Debates in the Constituent Assembly on the English language, Constituent Assembly of India Volume III, Friday 2nd May, 1947 -- A recent commentary on the debates is by Rama Kant Agnihotri, "Constituent Assembly Debates on Language", Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 50, Issue No. 8, 21 Feb, 2015

VI. Address by Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh at Oxford University -- the comments on English language are in this transcript.

VII. Excerpts from interviews with Chandrabhan Prasad -- The Wikipedia entry on him gives the links to many of his writings.

All in all, the PLSI volume promises to be a rich resource.

Tuesday, June 19, 2018

Multilingual education in India report coming in July 2018

The "early research findings" of the language and literacy project MultiLila will be announced and discussed in a two-day seminar in New Delhi in July 2018. The project's formal title is Multilingualism and Multiliteracy: Raising learning outcomes in challenging contexts in primary schools across India. This four-year UK-India project with its extensive, multidisciplinary network of partners (including institutions and people we have met often in this blog) began in 2016. Its primary question is "Why do some children in India not benefit from being multilingual or bilingual to the same degree as children in other ESL/EFL contexts?" (ESL is English as a Second Language, and EFL is English as a Foreign Language.)

As Mukhopadhyay (see below) notes, the project covers:
  • 1200 children in 4th standard [i. e. 10-year-olds] to be tested at two time points (4th and 5th standard)
  • 800 children living in urban areas in Delhi and Hyderabad (200 in slums, 200 in non-slums)
  • 400 children living in rural areas in Bihar-Patna (200 in semi-urban, 200 in urban areas)
  • Average ability children, no history of learning disabilities
  • No children from upper end of middle class or above
Some of the other questions the project asks are:
  • Is there a relationship between basic literacy and numeracy levels and school drop-out rates on the one hand, and language of instruction and support for MT education provision on the other?
  • Is multiliteracy associated with better skills in critical thinking and problem solving when MT literacy is available?
  • Are critical thinking and problem solving skills in the medium of instruction transferred in the child’s use of English for similar tasks?
  • Do multilingual children show comparable developmental knowledge of semantic fluency, syntactic knowledge, reading and retelling skills across MT and English?
One of the project's co-investigators, Lina Mukhopadhyay, amplified some of the objectives in the Language and Development Conference in 2017 (PDF):
  • To explore how the complex dynamics of social, economic and geographical contexts affect the delivery of quality of multilingual education in India.
  • To investigate how educational policy regarding the role of mother-tongue education (the three language formula) is implemented in schools, and how the language(s) of instruction impact on learning outcomes in basic literacy and numeracy but also higher level literacy skills expressed through critical thinking and problem solving in the language of education and in the development of English as a second language.
  • To evaluate how negative consequences of [structural inequality]... on learning outcomes can be attenuated when mother-tongue education is available.
We look forward to learning more about the seminar and the project's report, Multilingual classrooms: opportunities and challenges for English medium instruction in low and middle-income countries.

Wednesday, November 8, 2017

Language and Education resources at Early Literacy Initiative

In September 2017 I argued for MTME -- Mother-Tongue Based Multilingual Education -- in a blog post titled "Why Mother Tongue Medium in a Multilingual Context?"

The post is part of the recently launched website, Early Literacy Initiative (ELI), of the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS). As the ELI website states:

ELI is working broadly towards accomplishing:

  1. Research: To conduct new research in early language and literacy in India; and to disseminate knowledge that is already available.
  2. Teaching: To create a cadre of knowledgeable and well-prepared professionals in the area of early language and literacy.
  3. Advocacy: To provide visibility and leadership to work in early language and literacy by engaging in national level dialogues with scholars, policy-makers and other professionals working in allied areas. ELI will also provide networking support for practitioners and scholars working in the domain through a variety of means, such as, a visible and dynamic web presence, offering short-term workshops and courses, collecting and disseminating relevant information, and so on.

The blog is organized thematically. Their first theme is multilingualism. The website's Resources are organized around general interest, themes, handouts and publications, and talks and presentations.

All in all, ELI promises some interesting conversations!

Wednesday, August 16, 2017

School closures and mergers - Report

A report on School Closures and Mergers (PDF 4.5 MB) in India argues that tens of thousands of government schools in three states are being arbitrarily closed down and merged, causing immense hardship to children and their families. Poor girl children, and children with disabilities are the most severely affected, often dropping out of school altogether. The Save the Children report (not yet on their website, as of August 2017) studies the implementation and impact of policies of school closures and mergers in Telangana, Odisha, and Rajasthan.

Among its findings are that:

  • the policies are being haphazardly and arbitrarily implemented (Chapter 3)
  • no consultation with the community; nor any guidance to the community regarding alternatives (Chapter 7)
  • "Closures are both a cause and a consequence of the process of privatisation of schooling in educationally advanced districts and urban centres." (p. xi; see also Chapter 11)
  • "the mergers have only disrupted teaching-learning activities and perhaps further degraded the quality of education" (p. 50)
  • the closures and mergers impact more severely the economically underprivileged (Chapters 8 and 10)
  • serious impact on gender equality: "girls will be much more vulnerable to be married off earlier than before" (p. xi; see also Chapter 10.2)
  • these closures and mergers are a violation of various provisions of the Right to Education Act (Chapter 12)

The Report also documents cases of resistance. Regarding Rajasthan we are told that "about 384 schools were re-started due to the pressures from community members and political parties and representatives, thus making the total number of schools closed 14,673" (p. 69, Annexure 4, footnote 34).

The Report concludes in its section on "Issues and Recommendations for Advocacy" that the issue of school closures and mergers needs to be more widely known and better understood by the various stakeholders.

Monday, July 17, 2017

Information for Interlinguists - IfI

The Esperantic Studies Foundation (ESF) website has this news:

IfI (Information for Interlinguists) is a publication by the Center for Research and Documentation on World Language Problems (CED) and the Esperantic Studies Foundation (ESF), for all those interested in news and developments in the fields of interlinguistics. The publication is available for free in English...  and in Esperanto. To submit materials and to receive the publication by email, please write to Deadline for the next issue: October 1, 2017.

Here are the contents of IfI 1/2017 (PDF):
  1. Editorial
  2. Symposium on Language, the Sustainable Development Goals, and Vulnerable Populations
  3. Future Conferences and other events
  4. Esperantic Studies Foundation and the University of Costa Rica announce an LPP Summer School
  5. Call for Papers
  6. British Association for Applied Linguistics founded
  7. New President for the Center for Applied Linguistics
  8. The 6th Global Esperanto Examinations are complete and a series of individual sessions begins
  9. In memoriam: André Albault (1923-2017)
  10. Recent Publications
  11. Language Problems and Language Planning 41:1 and 41:2 (2017)
  12. Esperantic Studies Foundation appoints a new Executive Director
  13. Languages of Internationalism, University of London
  14. The Interlinguistic Studies program in Poznan is now accepting applications for 2017-2020

Sunday, May 14, 2017

Some myths about language

Osmania University celebrates its centenary this year (plus a few other anniversaries!). As part of its celebrations, it has brought out a freely downloadable volume called Insights on Global Challenges and Opportunities for the Century Ahead (and here's the direct link to the PDF).

As the Preface notes, the 400-page volume "contains 81 articles with insights from eminent personalities including Nobel laureates, World Food Prize winners, Padma awardees, Heads of national and international organizations, distinguished scientists, social workers, and spiritual leaders."

Among the several interesting contributions to the volume is "Some myths about language" by Duggirala Vasanta, Aditi Mukherjee, and Dipti Mishra-Sharma (pp. 95-99). Addressing a general audience, they briefly discuss the following 10 myths:

Myth 1: Sanskrit is the ‘mother’ of all Indian languages.

Myth 2: Borrowing from other languages or language-mixing ‘spoils’ the purity of a language.

Myth 3: ‘Dialects’ are inferior to ‘languages’.

Myth 4: ‘Script’ is an essential part of language.

Myth 5: Exposing preschool children to multiple languages / scripts will hinder their cognitive growth.

Myth 6: The alphabetic writing system of English is inherently superior compared to Indian scripts.

Myth 7: Sign languages are not real languages / there is just one universal sign language.

Myth 8: Men and women differ in their linguistic / spatial abilities because their brains are wired differently.

Myth 9: Machine Translation (MT) will replace human translators.

Myth 10: Machine Translation output quality is so bad that it is useless.

Do take a look at these useful reminders.

Saturday, April 22, 2017

Myaamia revitalization and well-being

Tove Skutnabb-Kangas drew our attention to an inspiring story of language "resurrection": that of Myaamia, the language of the Miami tribe in USA. As  Lorraine Boissoneault says in the Smithsonian Magazine article, "Despite the threat of language extinction, despite the brutal history of genocide and forced removals, this is a story of hope. It’s about reversing time and making that which has sunk below the surface visible once more. This is the story of how a disappearing language came back to life—and how it’s bringing other lost languages with it".

But it takes time, as linguists David Costa and Daryl Baldwin know. Costa has already spent 30 years on reviving Myaamia, and we're told that he "anticipates it’ll be another 30 or 40 before the puzzle is complete and all the historical records of the language are translated, digitally assembled, and made available to members of the tribe". As a project that will probably outlive its initiators, the focus has to be on youth. One result of their work has been wide institutional collaboration: "From this initiative came National Breath of Life Archival Institute for Indigenous Languages. The workshop has been held in 2011, 2013, 2015 and is slated once again for 2017.... The workshop has hosted community members from 60 different languages already".

And the benefits of this revitalization are startlingly tangible!
To emphasize the importance of indigenous languages, Baldwin and others researched the health impact of speaking a native language. They found that for indigenous bands in British Columbia, those who had at least 50 percent of the population fluent in the language saw 1/6 the rate of youth suicides compared to those with lower rates of spoken language. In the Southwestern U.S., tribes where the native language was spoken widely only had around 14 percent of the population that smoked, while that rate was 50 percent in the Northern Plains tribes, which have much lower language usage. Then there are the results they saw at Miami University: while graduation rates for tribal students were 44 percent in the 1990s, since the implementation of the language study program that rate has jumped to 77 percent.
As the website of Healing Through Language summarizes: "One tool for improving health has become apparent in recent years: language. Communities that maintain their Native language have lower suicide rates. Elders often find renewed vitality when called upon to help the younger generations recover a language. Youths in language programs graduate from high school at higher rates than those who take a mainstream language like Spanish."